I've been working on a theory as to why I occasionally have problems (or get complaints) leading certain followers (most often they are intermediates), and actually have less trouble with leading either beginners or advanced dancers. I've mostly assumed that it was mainly due to me being inconsistent and sloppy at times. However, I'm now starting to believe that another cause for this may be that there are different ways (or philosophies) for how the lead and follow are supposed to work. In talking to various teachers (and taking classes or lessons), I've heard what I would categorize as three distinct ways for how to lead turns. The three categories I would list are: Leading with the chest, Leading with the shoulders, and Leading with the frame (the technique I mostly try to use). Obviously, there's some overlap with things from these philosophies, but at the expense of overly simplifying it (and since I don't feel like writing a book), here's how I see them (in this case I'm mostly talking about turns). Leading with the chest: The leader signals where the follower should go/turn, by rotating or moving his chest. Leading with the shoulders: The leader signals by moving his shoulder (or sometimes both shoulders) where or how he wants the follower to move/turn, and the chest is used as well. Leading with the frame: The leader uses (together as a unit, and not independently) his chest, shoulders, and arms to signal where he wants the follower to go/turn. So here is my theory: With a beginner (for the most part), they will take (and be happy with) any kind of signal (lead) that they can get, and also assume that anything going wrong is their fault. With an intermediate, they have a fairly clear understanding of the system (or philosophy) of their main teacher, but may not be aware that their teacher's techniques and philosphies aren't the only ones that people use. With an advanced dancer, they have experienced pretty much all the common techniques and philosophies, and can easily accomodate any of them, even if they have a preference of one style over another. So does anyone think this theory of mine holds any water, or am I simply all wet?